wind and solar power systems mukund r patel
Mukund R. Patel, Ph.D, P.E., is an experienced research engineer with 35 years of hands-on involvement in designing and developing state-of-theart electrical power equipment and systems. He has served as principal power system engineer at the General Electric Company in Valley Forge, fellow engineer at the Westinghouse Research & Development Center in Pittsburgh, senior staff engineer at Lockheed Martin Corporation in Princeton, development manager at Bharat Bijlee Limited, Bombay, and 3M distinguished visiting professor of electrical power technologies at the University of Minnesota, Duluth. Presently he is a professor at the U.S.
Merchant Marine Academy in Kings Point, New York.
Dr. Patel obtained his Ph.D. degree in electric power engineering from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York; M.S. in engineering management from the University of Pittsburgh; M.E. in electrical machine design from Gujarat University and B.E.E. from Sardar University, India. He is a fellow of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (U.K.), senior member of the IEEE, registered professional engineer in Pennsylvania, and a member of Eta Kappa Nu, Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi and Omega Rho. Dr. Patel has presented and published over 30 papers at national and international conferences, holds several patents, and has earned NASA recognition for exceptional contribution to the photovoltaic power system design for UARS. He is active in consulting and teaching short courses to professional engineers in the electrical power industry.
wind and solar power systems pdf
The book is designed and tested to serve as textbook for a semester course for university seniors in electrical and mechanical engineering fields. The practicing engineers will get detailed treatment of this rapidly growing segment of the power industry. The government policy makers would benefit by overview of the material covered in the book.
Chapters 1 through 3 cover the present status and the ongoing research programs in the renewable power around the world and in the U.S.A.
Chapter 4 is a detailed coverage on the wind power fundamentals and the probability distributions of the wind speed and the annual energy potential of a site. It includes the wind speed and energy maps of several countries.
Chapter 5 covers the wind power system operation and the control requirements. Since most wind plants use induction generators for converting the turbine power into electrical power, the theory of the induction machine performance and operation is reviewed in Chapter 6 without going into details. The details are left for the classical books on the subject. The electrical
generator speed control for capturing the maximum energy under wind fluctuations over the year is presented in Chapter 7.
The power-generating characteristics of the photovoltaic cell, the array design, and the sun-tracking methods for the maximum power generation are discussed in Chapter 8. The basic features of the utility-scale solar thermal power plant using concentrating heliostats and molten salt steam turbine are presented in Chapter 9.
The stand-alone renewable power plant invariably needs energy storage for high load availability. Chapter 10 covers characteristics of various batteries, their design methods using the energy balance analysis, factors influencing their operation, and the battery management methods. The energy density and the life and operating cost per kWh delivered are presented for various batteries, such as lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydride and lithium-ion. The energy storage by the flywheel, compressed air and the superconducting coil, and their advantages over the batteries are reviewed.The basic theory and operation of the power electronic converters and inverters used in the wind and solar power systems are presented in Chapter 11, leaving details for excellent books available on the subject.
The more than two billion people in the world not yet connected to the utility grid are the largest potential market of stand-alone power systems. Chapter 12 presents the design and operating methods of such power systems using wind and photovoltaic systems in hybrid with diesel generators. The newly developed fuel cell with potential of replacing diesel engine in urban areas is discussed. The grid-connected renewable power systems are covered in Chapter 13, with voltage and frequency control methods needed for synchronizing the generator with the grid. The theory and the operating characteristics of the interconnecting transmission line, the voltage regulation, the maximum power transfer capability, and the static and dynamic stability are covered.
Chapter 14 is about the overall electrical system design. The method of designing the system components to operate at their maximum possible efficiency is developed. The static and dynamic bus performance, the harmonics, and the increasingly important quality of power issues applicable to the renewable power systems are presented.
Chapter 15 discusses the total plant economy and the costing of energy delivered to the paying customers. It also shows the importance of a sensitivity analysis to raise confidence level of the investors. The profitability charts are presented for preliminary screening of potential sites. Finally,Chapter 16 discusses the past and present trends and the future of the green power. It presents the declining price model based on the learning curve,and the Fisher-Pry substitution model for predicting the market growth of the wind and pv power based on historical data on similar technologies. The effect of the utility restructuring, mandated by the EPAct of 1992, and its
expected benefits on the renewable power producers are discussed.
At the end, the book gives numerous references for further reading, and name and addresses of government agencies, universities, and manufacturers active in the renewable power around the world.